MUSCLE OF UPPER LIMB

UPPER LIMB MUSCLES

 

 

1)DELTOID

 

Origin : 
– Clavicle ( lateral 1/3 rd ).
– Acromion ( lateral border ).
– crest of spine of scapula .
Insertion : Deltoid tuberosity ( Humerus ).
Action:
– Powerful arm abductor ( middle fiber ).
– Arm flexion and medial rotation ( Anterior fiber ).
– Arm extension and lateral rotation ( Posterior fiber ).

 

 

2) CORACOBRACHIALIS 

Origin :  from Tip of Corocoid process of scapula .
 
Insertion : Scapula ( medial border ).
 
Action : Flexes arm .
 
Nerve supply : Musculocutaneous nerve .


3) BICEPS BRACHII

Origin :
Short head – Corocoid process
Long head – supraglenoid tubercle of scapula.
 
Insertion : Radial tuberosity ( posterior area )
Action :mainly Supination of forearm and elbow flexion .
Nerve supply : Musculocutaneous nerve.

4) BRACHIALIS 

Origin : from  lower half of shaft of humerus .
Insertion : Ulnar tuberosity and Coronoid process.
Action : Forearm flexion .

Nerve supply : Musculocutaneous nerve .

5) BRACHIORADIALIS

Origin : Humerus ( supracondylar ridge )
Insertion : Base of ulnar styloid process
 
Action : Flexion of elbow joint.
 
Nerve supply : Radial nerve .

6) TRICEPS 

Origin : 
Long head – Infraglenoid tubercle ( scapula )
Lateral head – Posterior surface of humerus ( upper part )
Medial head of tricep –  from Posterior surface of humerus ( below radial groove ).
Insertion : Olecranon process
Action :  Elbow extension.
Nerve supply : Radial nerve.

7) ANCONEUS

Origin : Humerus ( lateral epicondyle )
Insertion : Olecranon process of ulna + lateral surface )
Action : Elbow joint extension.
Nerve supply : Radial nerve.

8) PRONATOR TERES

 

Origin : Medial epicondyle ( humerus )
 
Insertion : Lateral aspect of radial shaft .
Action : forearm pronation.
 
Nerve supply : Median nerve.


9) FLEXOR CARPI RADIALIS

Origin : Medial epicondyle ( humerus ).
Insertion : Base of metacarpal bone ( second and third ).
Action : Wrist flexion and abduction .
Nerve supply : Median nerve .


10) SUPINATOR

 
Origin : Humerus ( lateral epicondyle ).
Insertion : one – third of radial neck and shaft .
Action : forearm Supination
 
Nerve supply :from  Radial nerve ( deep branch ).


11) PALMARIS LONGUS

 

Origin : Medial epicondyle ( humerus ).
 
Insertion : Flexor retinaculum
Action : wrist flexion
 
Nerve supply : Median nerve.

12) FLEXOR DIGITORUM SUPERFICIALIS

 
Origin :
from Humerus ( medial epicondyle )
 Ulna ( coronoid process )
 
Insertion :  Middle phalanx ( second and third digit ).
Action : Flexion of middle phalanx of fingers.
 
Nerve supply : median nerve .

13) FLEXOR CARPI ULNARIS

Origin :from Humerus ( medial epicondyle ), Ulna ( olecranon process ).
Insertion : Fifth metacarpal base.
Action : wrist flexion and Adduction.
 
Nerve supply : ulnar nerve.


14) FLEXOR DIGITORUM PROFUNDUS 

 
Origin :
– Shaft of ulna
– Posterior border of ulna
– olecranon and cornoid process of ulna.
Insertion :at Palmar surface of the base of distal phalanx.
 
Action : Flexion of fingers / wrist and it is a chief gripping muscle.
 
Nerve supply : Ulnar nerve ( medial half ), Anterior interosseous nerve ( Lateral half ).

15) FLEXOR POLLICIS LONGUS

Origin : Shaft of radius ( anterior surface )
 
Insertion :at Distal phalanx of thumb ( palmar surface ).
Action :Thumb flexion at distal phalanx.
 
Nerve supply : from Anterior interosseous nerve  ( branch of median nerve ).


16) PRONATOR QUADRATUS 

 

Origin : Shaft of ulna ( anterior surface ).
Insertion : Radius anterior border .
Action : Forearm pronation.
 
Nerve supply : from Anterior interosseous nerve ( branch of median nerve ).

17) ABDUCTOR POLLICIS BREVIS

 

Origin : Scaphoid, trapezium and flexor retinaculum.
 
Insertion :at  Base of thumb ( proximal phalanx.
 
Action : Thumb abduction .
 
Nerve supply : Median nerve.

18) FLEXOR POLLICIS BREVIS

Origin : Trapezoid, capitate bone and flexor retinaculum.
Insertion : at Base of thumb ( proximal phalanx ).
 
Action : Thumb flexion at MCP joint.
Nerve supply : median nerve.


19) OPPONENS POLLICIS

Origin : Flexor retinaculum
Insertion : at Shaft of metacarpal bone of thumb .
Action : Opposes thumb towards fingers.
Nerve supply : median nerve.


20) ADDUCTOR POLLICIS 

 
Origin :
– Metacarpal base ( second to third )
– Shaft of third metacarpal.
 
Insertion : at Base of thumb ( proximal phalanx ).
 
Action : Thumb adduction.
 
Nerve supply : from Ulnar nerve ( deep branch )

21) PALMARIS BREVIS

Origin : Flexor retinaculum
 
Insertion : skin of palm ( medial side ).
 
Action : improves grip of palm
Nerve supply : ulnar nerve .


22) ABDUCTOR DIGITI MINIMI

Origin : Pisiform bone.
Insertion : Base of little finger ( proximal phalanx ).
Action : Little finger abduction.
 
Nerve supply : ulnar nerve.


23) FLEXOR DIGITI MINIMI

 
Origin : Flexor retinaculum
 
Insertion : Base of little finger ( proximal phalanx ).
Action : Little finger flexion .
 
Nerve supply : ulnar nerve .


24) OPPONENS DIGITI MINIMI

Origin : Flexor retinaculum.
 
Insertion : Fifth metacarpal ( medial border ).
Action : Palm cupping .
 
Nerve supply : ulnar nerve.

25) LUMBRICALS (4)

 
Origin :
1 st –  Lateral side of tendon of second digit ( Flexor digitorum profundus tendon).
2 nd – Lateral side of tendon of third digit.
3 rd – adjacent side of tendon of third and fourth digit.
4 th – Adjacent side of tendon of fourth and fifth digit .
 
Insertion : Dorsum of base of distal phalanx.
Action : Flexion of MCP joint and IP joint extension ( second and fifth digits ).
 
Nerve supply : Median nerve ( first and second ), ulnar serve (third and fourth ).


26) DORSAL INTEROSSEI 

 

Origin : 
1 st  – Adjacent side of first and second metacarpal
2 nd – adjacent side of second and third metacarpal.
3 rd – adjacent side of third and fourth metacarpal.
4 th – adjacent side of fourth and fifth metacarpal.
Insertion : Base of distal phalanges ( 2nd , 3 rd, 4 th digits )
Action : Finger abduction.
Nerve supply : Ulnar nerve ( deep branch).


27) PALMAR INTEROSSEI : 

Origin : 

1st – Base of first metacarpal (medial side )
2 nd – Shaft of second metacarpal ( medial side )
3 rd – Shaft of fourth metacarpal ( lateral side )
4 th – Shaft of fifth metacarpal ( lateral side ).
 
Insertion :at Base of proximal phalanx of thumb ( medial side ).
 
Action : Abduction of finger ( towards center of 3 rd digit ).
 
Nerve supply : ulnar nerve  (deep branch ).

28) EXTENSOR INDICIS 

 
Origin : Shaft of ulna
Insertion : Extensor expansion of index finger .
 
Action :mainly Extesion of index finger ( at MCP joint ).
Nerve supply : Radial nerve ( deep branch ).

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