These are the contractile tissue which brings about all the movement in the body.
Types of muscle
The muscle are if three types:- skeletal, smooth, and cardiac.
Synonyms of skeletal muscle are
1) striped muscles
2) Striated muscles
4) Voluntary muscles.
Parts of a muscle
A) Two ends
– It is one end of the muscle which mostly remains fixed during its contraction.
-It is the other end which mostly moves during its contraction.
-In the limb muscle, the origin is usually proximal to insertion.
-However, the origin and insertion sometimes are interchangeable, and at other situations difficult to define , as in the intercostal muscle.
– Muscles of pharynx, oesophagus, and the diaphragm act as involuntary muscles.
B) Two parts
1) FLESHY PART-: It is contractile, and is called the ‘belly’.
2) FIBROUS PART-: It is noncontractile and inelastic, when flattened ,it is called aponeurosis.
– The tendon receives Golgi tendon nerve endings.
– It is supplied by capillaries extending from the fleshy part and also from the periosteal arteries of the bone where the tendon terminates or gets inserted.
STRUCTURE OF STRIATED MUSCLE.
A) CONTRACTILE TISSUE
-Each muscle is composed of numerous muscle fibers.
-The fiber of the muscles are multinucleated, cross-striated cylindrical cell (myocyte) long.
-It is consist of sarcolemma (cell membrane) enclosing sarcoplasm (cytoplasm).
Embedded in the sarcoplasm there are
a)several hundred nuclei arranged at the periphery beneath the sarcolemma and
b) a number of evenly distributed longitudinal threads like structure are called myofibrils.
– each myofibril shows alternate dark and light bands as I bands.
Muscle -> fasciculi -> fibers -> myofibril ->myofilaments
B) SUPPORTING TISSUE
-Supporting tissue helps in organization of the muscle.
-Endomysium surrounds each muscle fiber separately.
-Perimysium surrounds bundles of muscle fibers of various sizes.
-Epimysium surrounds the entire muscle.
– The tendon is the continuation of the connective tissue of the muscles.
C) TYPES OF FIBRES
1)TYPE 1 (SLOW) FIBRES.
-Show a slow ‘tonic’ contraction characteristic of postural muscle like gluteus maximus.
– These are red colour because of large amount of myoglobin.
-The fibers are rich in mitochondria and oxidative enzymes , but pair in phosphorylases.
– Slow fibers are highly resistant to fatigue, Because of a well-developed aerobic metabolism.
2) TYPE 2 (FAST) FIBRES
-Show a fast ‘phasic’ contraction which is required for the large- scale muscular movements of the body segments.
– These are paler ( white) in colour because of myoglobin.
-The fibers are poor in mitro- chondria and oxidative enzymes , but rich in glycogen and phosphorylases.
– fast fiber are quite easily becomes fatigued, because of a glycolytic respiration .
3) INTERMEDIATE FIBRES
.-Represent a variant of type 2 (fast) fibers which are relatively resistant to fatigue, although less than type1 (slow) fibers
– In man , most of the skeletal muscles show a mixture of fiber types ,but any one type may predominate.
FASCICULAR ARTITECTURE OF MUSCLES
– The arrangements of muscle fibers differs according to the direction, force and range of habitual movement at the particular joint.
– The force of movement is directly proportional to the size and number of muscle fibers, and the range of movement is proportional to the length of fibers.
– According to the arrangement of their fasciculi , the muscles are classified into the following group.
A) PARALLEL FASC ICULI
When these fasciculi are parallel mainly to the line of pull, the muscle can resemble as
1) Quadrilateral ( thyrohyoid)
2) Strap- like with tendinous intersections ( rectus abdominis)
3) Strap -like (sternohyoid and sartorius)
4) Fusiform ( biceps brachii, digastric, etc)
B) OBLIQUE FASCICUL
-When the fasciculi are mostly oblique to the line of pull, the muscle may be triangular, or pennate (feather like) in the construction.
– This arrangement makes the muscle more powerful, although the range movement is reduced.
– Oblique arrangements are of the following-:
1) Triangular – temporalis
2) Unipennate- flexor pollicis longus, extensor digitorum longus.
4) Multipennate- subscapularuis, deltoid
5) Circumpennate – tibialis anterior.
C) SPIRAL OR TWISTED FASCICULI
-Spiral or twisted fibers are mainly found in trapezius, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, supinator, etc. -In certain muscle the fasciculi are crossed. These are called cruciate muscles, eg. Sternocleidomastoid, masseter and adductor magnus.
Naming of the muscle
Quadratus- quadratus femoris
Rhomboid – rhomboid major
Lumbrical – lumbricals of palm
Rectus- rectus abdominis
Major- pectoralis major
Minor- pectoralis minor
Longus – adductor longus
Brevis – abductoe pollicis brevis
Latissimus – latisiimus dorsi
Longissimus- longissimus thoracis
Number of head:-
Biceps- biceps brachiu
Triceps- triceps brachii
Quadriceps – quadriceps femoris
Digastric – anterior and posterior bellies of digastric
Nerve supply of skeletal muscle.
-The nerve supply if a muscle is called motor nerve.
1) MOTOR FIBRES
a) Large myelinated alpha efferent which supply extrafusal muscle fibers.
b) Small myelinated gamma efferent which supply intrafusal fibers of the muscle spindles which refine and control muscle contraction.
c) The fine non- myelinated autonomic efferents which supply smooth muscle fibers of the blood vessels.
2) SENSORY FIBRES
-Myelinated fibers distribution to muscle spindles for proprioception, also tendons.
-These are spindle shaped sensory end organs of the skeletal muscle.
-Each spindle contains 6-14 intrafasal muscle fibers which are of two types, the larger nuclear bag fibers, and the smaller nuclear chain fibers.
-The spindle are innervated by both the sensory and motor nerves.
-The nerve supply of spindle is derived from gamma motor neuron of the spinal cord.
-Muscle spindles act as stretch receptors.
-The record and help regulate the degree and rate of contraction of the extrafusal fibers by influencing the alpha neurons, which act on ” motor end plate”.
–It is a site where the motor nerve enters the muscle fibers supplied by it.
-Electrical stimulation is more effective at the motor point.
-It is define as the single alpha motor neuron together with the muscle fibers applied by it.
Nerve supply of smooth muscle
a)Single- unit type
Seen in intestine.
The nerve are classified into one muscle cell, is transmitted to other cells by the mechanical pull through the fused cell membrane.
The nerve supply us sparse.
b)Multi- unit type
Seen in the muscles of the ductus deferens.
Watch muscle cell receives a seperate nerve fiber. The contraction is simultaneous.
The nerve supply is rich.
Nerve supply if cardiac muscle.
The nerve supply of heart is sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers.
Action of muscles
-They bring about the desired movement .
-It is chief muscle for the movement
-When a prime mover helps in opposite movement of action by doing active controlled lengthening against gravity, it is know as action of paradox.
-Eg. Putting a glass back to the table is assisted by the gravity but controlled by a gradual active lengthening of biceps.
–they oppose the prime mover.
-They help the prime mover to actively controlled relaxation, so that the desired movement is smooth and precise.
-Thus the antagonist cooperate rather than oppose the prime movers.
-These is due to the reciprocal innervation of the opposite groups of muscles, regulated by the spinal cord through stretch reflex.
-They are the group of muscles which stabilize the proximal joints of a limb, so that the desired movement at the distal joint may occur on a fixed base.
-Eg. Muscle acting on shoulder joint, e.g. trapezius, deltoid fix it for better movement of finger.
-Two or more muscle causing one movement are synergist.
when the prime mover cross more than one joint ,the undesired action ar the proximal joints are prevented by certain muscles known as synergists.
-Eg. During making a tight fist by long digital flexors the wrist is kept fixed in extension by the synergists
-Thus, the synergists are special fixators