MUSCLE OF LOWER LIMB

 INTRODUCTION

 

 

 

1) SARTORIUS

Origin :FROM Iliac spine ( anterior surface ).

Insertion : ON Tibial upper medial surface.

Action : MAINLY Thigh flexion, extension and lateral rotation .

Nerve supply : Femoral nerve .

 

 

2) RECTUS FEMORIS

Origin : FROM Anterior inferior iliac spine.

Insertion : ON Tibial tuberosity by patellar tendon.

Action :  MAINLY knee extension  and hip flexion.

Nerve supply : Femoral nerve

 

 

3) VASTUS LATERALIS 

Origin : from Shaft of femur ( upper end )

Insertion : ON Tibial tuberosity by patellar tendon .

Action :MAINLY Extension of leg.

Nerve supply : Femoral nerve .

 

 

4) VASTUS MEDIALIS

Origin :FROM Upper end of shaft of femur .

Insertion :ON Tibial tuberosity by patellar tendon.

Action :MAINLY Extension of knee.

Nerve supply : Femoral nerve.

 

 

5) VASTUS INTERMEDIUS

Origin : from Femoral shaft

Insertion : ON Tibial tuberosity by patellar tendon .

ActionMAINLY Knee joint extension.

Nerve supply : Femoral nerve.

 

 

6) ARTICULARIS GENU

Origin : FROM Femur ( anterior surface )

Insertion : ON Synovial membrane of knee joint .

Action : MAILY Pulls synovial membrane upwards during knee extension .

Nerve supply : Femoral nerve.

 

7) ADDUCTOR LONGUS

Origin : FROM Body of pubis .

Insertion : ON Shaft of femur ( posterior surface ).

Action : MAILY Adducts thigh.

Nerve supply : Obturator nerve.

 

 

8) ADDUCTOR BREVIS

Origin : FROM Inferior ramus of pubis .

Insertion : ON Shaft of femur ( posterior surface ).

Action : MAINLY Adduction of thigh.

Nerve supply : Obturator nerve.

 

 

9) ADDUCTOR MAGNUS

Origin :FROM  Inferior ramus of pubis .

Insertion : ON Shaft of femur ( Posterior surface).

Action : MAILY Adduction if thigh , Extension of hip, flexion of  knee.

Nerve supply : Obturator nerve.

 

 

10) GRACILIS

Origin : FROM Inferior ramus of pubis and ramus of ischium.

Insertion : ON Upper part of shaft of tibia on medial surface.

Action : MAINLY  Adduction of thigh and flexion of thigh.

Nerve supply : Obturator nerve.

 

 

11) PECTINEUS

Origin :  FROM superior ramus of pubis.

Insertion : ON Shaft of femur ( upper end ).

Action : MAINLY Flexion and Adduction of thigh.

Nerve supply : Femoral nerve for anterior fiber and obturator nerve for posterior fiber.

 

 

12) GLUTEUS MAXIMUS

Origin : FROM  Outer surface of ileum.

Insertion : ON Ileotibial tract and gluteal tuberosity of femur.

Action : MAINLY Extension and lateral rotation of thigh , Knee extension.

Nerve supply : Inferior gluteal nerve.

 

 

 

 

13) GLUTEUS MEDIUS

Origin : FROM Outer surface of ilium .

Insertion : ON Greater tuberosity of femur.

Action : MAINLY Abduction of thigh

Nerve supply : Superior gluteal nerve.

 

 

14) GLUTEUS MINIMUS

Origin : FROM  Outer surface of ilium.

Insertion : ON Greater tuberosity of femur.

Action : MAINLY Abduction of thigh.

Nerve supply : Superior gluteal nerve.

 

 

15) PIRIFORMIS

Origin : FROM Anterior surface of sacrum.

Insertion : ON Greater trochanteric fossa.

Action : MAINLY Lateral rotation of thigh.

Nerve supply : First and second sacral nerve.

 

 

 

16) SUPERIOR GAMELLUS

Origin : FROM Spine of ischium .

Insertion : ON Greater trochanteric fossa.

Action : MAINLY Lateral rotation of thigh.

Nerve supply : Sacral plexus.

 

17) INFERIOR GAMELLUS 

Origin : FROM Ischial tuberosity .

Insertion : ON Greater trochanteric fossa.

Action : MAINLY Thigh lateral rotation.

Nerve supply : Sacral plexus.

 

18) OBTURATOR INTERNUS

Origin : FROM Inner surface of obturator membrane.

Insertion : ON Greater trochanteric fossa.

Action : MAINLY Thigh lateral rotation.

Nerve supply : Sacral plexus.

 

 

19) OBTURATOR EXTERNUS

Origin : FROM Outer surface of obturator membrane.

Insertion : ON Greater trochanteric fossa of femur.

Action : MAINLY lateral rotation of Thigh.

Nerve supply : Obturator nerve.


20) TENSOR FASCIAE LATAE

Origin : FROM Iliotibial crest.

Insertion : ON Iliotibial tract.

Action : MAINLY Abduction and medial rotation of thigh and knee extension.

Nerve supply : Superior gluteal nerve.

 

 

21) SEMITENDINOSUS

Origin : FROM Ischial tuberosity .

Insertion : ON upper part of medial surface of shaft of tibia.

Action : MAINLY Flexion and medial rotation of leg.

Nerve supply : Tibial nerve.

 

 

22) SEMIMEMBRANOSUS

Origin : FROM Ischial tuberosity.

Insertion : ON Medial epicondyle of tibia.

Action : MAINLY Flexion and medial rotation of leg.

Nerve supply : Tibial nerve.

 

 

23) BICEPS FEMORIS

Origin :

Long head – From Ischial tuberosity

Short head – From shaft of femur.

Insertion :  ON Head of fibula.

Action : MAINLY Flexion and lateral rotation of leg.

Nerve supply : Tibial nerve and common peroneal nerve.

 

 

24) ADDUCTOR MAGNUS

Origin : FROM  Inferior ramus of pubis.

Insertion : ON Posterior surface femoral shaft.

Action : MAINLY Thigh Adduction, hip Extension, knee flexion.

Nerve supply : Obturator nerve.

 

 

 

25)TIBIALIS ANTERIOR 

Origin : FROM Shaft of tibia and interosseous membrane.

Insertion : ON Medial 1 st metacarpal .

Action : MAINLY foot extension.

Nerve supply : Deep peroneal nerve.

 


26) EXTENSOR HALLUCIS LONGUS

Origin : FROM tibial shaft and interosseous membrane.

Insertion : ON Base of distal phalanx of toe.

Action : MAINLY Big toe Extension.

Nerve supply : Deep peroneal nerve.

 

27) EXTENSOR DIGITORUM

Origin :  FROM Shaft of fibula to interosseous membrane.

Insertion : ON Extensor expansion of lateral 4 toes.

Action : MAINLY Toe Extension.

Nerve supply : Deep peroneal nerve.

 

28) PERONEUS TERTIUS

Origin : FROM  Shaft of fibula and interosseous membrane.

Insertion : ON Base of fifth metatarsal .

Action : MAINLY Foot dorsiflexion .

Nerve supply : Deep peroneal nerve.


29) PERONEUS LONGUS

Origin : FROM Shaft of fibula

Insertion : ON Base of first metatarsal of medial cuneiform.

Action : MAINLY Foot plantar flexion.

Nerve supply : Superficial peroneal nerve.

 

30) PERONEUS BREVIS

Origin : FROM Fibular shaft

Insertion : AT  Base of fifth metatarsal bone.

Action : MAINLY Plantar flexion of foot.

Nerve supply : Superficial peroneal nerve.

 

31) GASTROCNEMIUS

Origin : FROM Medial and lateral condyle of femur.

Insertion : ON Achilles tendon to calcaneum.

Action : MAINLY Foot plantar flexion.

Nerve supply : Tibial nerve.

 

 

32 ) SOLEUS

Origin : FROM Shaft of tibia and fibula

Insertion : ON Achilles tendon into calcaneum .

Action : MAINLY Plantar flexion.

Nerve supply : Tibial nerve.

 

 

33) PLANTARIS

Origin : FROM Lateral supracondylar ridge of femur.

Insertion : ON Calcaneum

Action : MAINLY Foot plantar flexion.

Nerve supply : Tibial nerve.

 

 

34) POPLITEUS

Origin : FROM Lateral condyle of femur.

Insertion : ON Tibial shaft.

Action : MAINLY Flexion of leg.

Nerve supply : Tibial nerve.

 

 

35) FLEXOR DIGITORUM LONGUS

Origin : FROM Tibial shaft

Insertion : ON Distal phalanx of lateral four toes.

Action : MAINLY Flexion of distal phalanges ( lateral four toes ).

Nerve supply : Tibial nerve.

 

 

36) FLEXOR HALLUCIS LONGUS 

Origin :  FROM Shaft of fibula

Insertion : ON Base of distal phalanx ( Big toe ).

Action :  MAINLY Flexion of distal phalanges ( Big toe )

Nerve supply : tibial nerve.

 

37) TIBIALIS POSTERIOR

Origin : FROM tibial shaft and fibula , interosseous membrane .

Insertion : ON navicular bone tuberosity.

Action : MAINLY Plantar flexion.

Nerve supply : Tibial nerve.

 

 

38) FLEXOR DIGITORUM BREVIS 

Origin : FROM calcaneum ( medial tubercle).

Insertion : ON Middle phalanx of four lateral toes .

Action : MAINLY lateral four toes Flexion.

Nerve supply : Medial plantar nerve.

 

39) ABDUCTOR HALLUCIS

Origin : from Medial tubercle of Calcaneum , flexor retinaculum .

Insertion : ON Base of proximal phalanx (big toe )

Action : MAINLY Flexion and abduction of big toe.

Nerve supply : Medial plantar nerve.


40) ABDUCTOR DIGITI MINIMI

Origin : FROM Calcaneum ( medial and lateral tubercle ).

Insertion : ON Base of proximal phalanx of  5th toe ( lateral side ).

Action : MAINLY Fifth toe flexion and abduction.

Nerve supply : Lateral plantar nerve.

 

41) LUMBRICALS 

Origin :  FROM Flexor digitorum  longus tendon.

Insertion : ON Dorsal lateral expansion of lateral four toes.

Action : MAINLY Extension of toes at IP joint.

Nerve supply : Medial plantar nerve ( first muscle ), Lateral plantar nerve ( remaining muscles ).

 

 

42) FLEXOR HALLUCIS BREVIS

Origin : FROM Cuboid , lateral cuneiform bone.

Insertion : ON Base of proximal phalanx of big toe ( medial and lateral side ).

Action : MAINLY Flexion of metatarsophalangeal joint ( Big toe ).

Nerve supply : Medial plantar nerve.

 

43) ADDUCTOR HALLUCIS ( Oblique head )

Origin : FROM  Base of second , third and fourth Metatarsal bone.

Insertion : ON Base of proximal big toe ( lateral side ).

Action : MAINLY Big toe flexion and supports transverse arch.

Nerve supply : lateral plantar nerve ( deep branch ).

 

44) ADDUCTOR HALLUCIS ( transverse head )

Origin : FROM  Plantar ligament

Insertion : ON Base of proximal phalanx of big toe ( lateral side )

Action : MAINLY Big toe flexion

Nerve supply : Lateral plantar nerve ( deep branch ).

 

45 ) FLEXOR DIGITI MINIMI

Origin : FROM Fifth metatarsal base.

Insertion : ON Base of proximal phalanx of big toe ( lateral side ).

Action : MAINLY Little toe Flexion.

Nerve supply : Lateral plantar nerve ( Superior branch ).

 

46) PLANTAR INTEROSSEI

Origin : FROM Metatarsal bone ( 3 rd, 4 th , 5 th )

Insertion : ON Phalanges base and dorsal expansion of corresponding toe.

Action : MAINLY Adduction of toes.

Nerve supply : Lateral plantar nerve.

 

47) DORSAL INTEROSSEI

Origin : FROM Adjacent side of metatarsal bone.

Insertion : ON Phalageal base and dorsal expansion of corresponding toes.

Action : MAINLY Abducts toe with second toe.

Nerve supply : Lateral plantar nerve.

 

 

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