CHOLECYSTECTOMY

CHOLECYSTECTOMY Definition – Removal of gallbladder is called as Cholecystectomy. – Cholecystectomy means making an opening in gallbladder for removing gallstones at the neck of gall bladder and for draining the obstructed gall bladder.   * Indications   1) Gall stones ( cholelithiasis ) 2) Acute and chronic cholecystitis 3) Carcinoma of gall bladder 4) …

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OXYGEN THERAPY

OXYGEN THERAPY Definition – Oxygen therapy is the use of oxygen as a medical treatment. • Indications – SaO2 level below 90% – Before and after suctioning – Heart surgery – during exercise – Terminally ill patients – Breathlessness on exercise. • Complications – Hypercapnia – Oxygen toxicity – Blindness – Atelectasis – Discomfort and …

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PLICA SYNDROME

PLICA SYNDROME.   DEFINITION   – Plica syndrome is a fold of synovium present in suprapapatellar, infrapatellar and mediopatellar aspects of knee joint. – It can get injured during trauma to the knee joint, Anterior crucial ligament tear and hemarthrosis leading to knee pain. – When it is injured, there will be inflammation and pain …

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RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.

RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS   DEFINITION   – Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, autoimmune, progressive, inflammatory disease , affecting joints and periarticular tissues. – Inflammatory mediators are released in joints which initiates inflammatory process. – Earliest lesion is vasculitis, then synovial edema and infiltration with inflammatory cells . – Local prostaglandin synthesis occurs which causes vasodilation and …

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